Wednesday, August 20, 2014
- सीताराम गुप्ता
एक युवक जो कि संगीत में निपुणता प्राप्त करने की इच्छा रखता था अपने क्षेत्र के सबसे महान संगीताचार्य के पास पहुँचा और उनसे बोला, ''आप संगीत के महान आचार्य हैं और संगीत में निपुणता प्राप्त करने में मेरी गहरी रुचि है। इसलिए आप से निवेदन है कि आप मुझे संगीत की शिक्षा प्रदान करने की कृपा करें।''
संगीताचार्य ने कहा कि जब तुम्हारी इतनी उत्कट इच्छा है मुझसे संगीत सीखने की तो आ जाओ, सिखा दूँगा। अब युवक ने आचार्य से पूछा कि इस कार्य के बदले उसे क्या सेवा करनी होगी। आचार्य ने कहा कि कोई ख़ास नहीं मात्र सौ स्वर्ण मुद्राएँ मुझे देनी होंगी।
''सौ स्वर्ण मुद्राएँ हैं तो बहुत ज़्यादा और मुझे संगीत का थोड़ा बहुत ज्ञान भी है पर ठीक है मैं सौ स्वर्ण मुद्राएँ आपकी सेवा में प्रस्तुत कर दूँगा,'' युवक ने कहा। इस पर संगीताचार्य ने कहा,
''यदि तुम्हें पहले से संगीत का थोड़ा-बहुत ज्ञान है तब तो तुम्हें दो सौ स्वर्ण मुद्राएँ देनी होंगी।''
युवक ने हैरानी से पूछा,
''आचार्य ये बात तो गणितीय सिद्धांत के अनुकूल नहीं लगती और मेरी समझ से भी परे है। काम कम होने पर कीमत ज़्यादा?''
आचार्य ने उत्तर दिया,
''काम कम कहाँ है? पहले तुमने जो सीखा है उसे मिटाना, विस्मृत कराना होगा तब फिर नए सिरे से सिखाना प्रारंभ करना पड़ेगा।''
वस्तुत: कुछ नया उपयोगी और महत्वपूर्ण सीखने के लिए सबसे पहले मस्तिष्क को खाली करना, उसे निर्मल करना ज़रूरी है अन्यथा नया ज्ञान उसमें नहीं समा पाएगा। सर्जनात्मकता के विकास और आत्मज्ञान के लिए तो यह अत्यंत अनिवार्य है क्योंकि पहले से भरे हुए पात्र में कुछ भी और डालना असंभव है।
Book : The Hindu View Of Life by Radhakrishnan
The ease with which Hinduism has steadily absorbad the customs and ideas of peoples with whom it has come into contact is as great as the difficulty we feel in finding a common feature binding together its different forms. But, if there is not a unity of spirit binding its different expressions and linking up the different periods of its history into one organic whole, it will not be possible to account for the achievements of Hinduism.
As the civilisation extended over the whole of India, it suffered many changes, but it kept up its continuity with the old Vedic type developed on the banks of the Sindhu. The term "Hindu" had originally a territorial and not a credal significance. It implied residence in a well-defined geographical area. Aboriginal tribes, savage and half-civilised people, the cultured Dravidians and the Vedic Aryans were all Hindus as they were the sons of the same mother. The Hindu thinkers reckoned with the striking fact that the men and women dwelling in India belonged to different communities, worshipped different gods and practised different rites.
As if this were not enough, outsiders have been pouring into the country from the beginning of its history and some have made for themselves a home in India and thus increased the difficulty of the problem. How was Hindu society built up out of material so diverse, so little susceptible in many cases to assimilation and scattered across a huge continent measuring nearly two thousand miles from north to south and eighteen hundred miles from west to east? It cannot be denied that in a few centuries the spirit of cultural unity spread through a large part of the land and racial stocks of varying levels of culture become steeped in a common atmosphere. The differences among the sects of the Hindus are more or less on the surface and the Hindus as such remain a distinct cultural unit, with a common history, a common literature and a common civilisation. Mr. Vincent Smith observes, "India beyond all doubt possesses a deep underlying fundamental unity, far more profound than that produced either by geographical isolation or by political superiority. That unity transcends the innumerable diversities of blood, colour, language, dress, manners and sect."
Page, 13, 14.
There has been no such thing as a uniform stationary unalterable Hinduism whether in point of belief or practice. Hinduism is a movement, not a position ; a process, not a result ; a growing tradition, not a fixed revelation. Its past history encourages us to believe that it will be found equal to any emergency that the future may throw up, whether on the field of thought or of history.
Page, 129, 130
पुस्तक – "स्वदेशी समाज", लेखक : रविन्द्रनाथ टैगोर
बहुलता में ऐक्य की उपलब्धि, वैचित्र्य के बीच ऐक्य-स्थापना, यही भारत वर्ष का अंतर्निहित धर्म है. भारत पार्थक्य को विरोध नहीं समझता, परकीय शत्रु नहीं समझता. बिना किसी का विनाश किये, एक बृहत व्यवस्था में सभी को स्थान देना चाहता है. सभी पंथों को वह स्वीकार करता है, अपने-अपने स्थान पर प्रत्येक का महात्म्य वह देख पाता है.
भारत का यही गुण है, इसलिए किसी समाज को हम अपना विरोधी समझकर भयभीत नहीं होंगे. प्रत्येक नए संघात से अंततः हम अपने विस्तार की ही प्रत्याशा करेंगे. हिन्दू, बौद्ध, मुस्लमान और ईसाई भारत की भूमि पर युद्ध करके मरेंगे नहीं. यहाँ वे सामंजस्य ढूंढ सकेंगे. वह सामंजस्य अहिंदू नहीं, बल्कि विशेष रूप से हिन्दू होगा. उसके अंग प्रत्यंग चाहे देश विदेश के हों, उसका प्राण, उसकी आत्मा भारतीय होगी.
सम्राट चंद्रगुप्त ने एक दिन अपने प्रतिभाशाली मंत्री चाणक्य से कहा-
"कितना अच्छा होता कि तुम अगर रूपवान भी होते।"
चाणक्य ने उत्तर दिया,
"महाराज रूप तो मृगतृष्णा है। आदमी की पहचान तो गुण और बुद्धि से ही होती है, रूप से नहीं।"
"क्या कोई ऐसा उदाहरण है जहाँ गुण के सामने रूप फींका दिखे। चंद्रगुप्त ने पूछा।
"ऐसे तो कई उदाहरण हैं महाराज, चाणक्य ने कहा, "पहले आप पानी पीकर मन को हल्का करें बाद में बात करेंगे।"
फिर उन्होंने दो पानी के गिलास बारी बारी से राजा की ओर बढ़ा दिये।
"महाराज पहले गिलास का पानी इस सोने के घड़े का था और दूसरे गिलास का पानी काली मिट्टी की उस मटकी का था। अब आप बताएँ, किस गिलास का पानी आपको मीठा और स्वादिष्ट लगा।"
सम्राट ने जवाब दिया- "मटकी से भरे गिलास का पानी शीतल और स्वदिष्ट लगा एवं उससे तृप्ति भी मिली।"
वहाँ उपस्थित महारानी ने मुस्कुराकर कहा, "महाराज हमारे प्रधानमंत्री ने बुद्धिचातुर्य से प्रश्न का उत्तर दे दिया। भला यह सोने का खूबसूरत घड़ा किस काम का जिसका पानी बेस्वाद लगता है। दूसरी ओर काली मिट्टी से बनी यह मटकी, जो कुरूप तो लगती है लेकिन उसमें गुण छिपे हैं। उसका शीतल सुस्वादु पानी पीकर मन तृप्त हो जाता है। आब आप ही बतला दें कि रूप बड़ा है अथवा गुण एवं बुद्धि?"
Tuesday, August 19, 2014
Fields Medal winner Manjul Bhargava's 3 ideas to overcome fear of mathsSourabh Gupta New Delhi, August 19, 2014 | UPDATED 17:03 IST
Manjul Bhargava, the first Indian-origin mathematician to win the coveted Fields Medal, says the inspiration behind his discoveries in number theory has been the classic works of ancient Indian mathematicians.
"Their works contain incredible mathematical discoveries, and were very inspirational to me as a young mathematician. The classic works of Pingala, Hemachandra, and Brahmagupta have been particularly influential in my own work," the 40-year-old Princeton University professor told IndiaToday.in in a detailed email interview.
In the interview, he also goes on the explain how the ancients derived elegant mathematical patterns from rhythms of Sanskrit poetry and how he managed to simplify and expand the work of 18th century German maths legend Carl Friedrich Gauss with the help of Hemchandra's Identity and a simple Rubik's Mini-Cube.
Bhargava also offers three suggestions to teachers and students in India to make maths learning fun.
Here is the full Q&A:
Q: Can you describe for our readers, in simple terms, the nature of the number theory work for which you have been awarded?
A: I work in the area of number theory, which studies the whole numbers ..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... and special whole numbers like the primes, and their properties and the equations that they satisfy.
My work was primarily about deciding when certain fundamental equations in mathematics (such as quadratic forms and elliptic curves) have solutions in the whole numbers. My work introduced, in particular, a new geometric method for answering such questions.
Q: We read in an interview that you have followed ancient Indian mathematics and works of Brahmagupta and Hemchandra. Please tell us a little more about what you feel about ancient Indian mathematics, and about Vedic mathematics too, on which there is a lot of debate in India.
A: In part because of the scientific nature of the Sanskrit language, many remarkable linguistic/poetic/mathematical works were written in ancient times in India. Growing up, I had a chance to read some of the works of the masters: the great linguists/poets such as Panini, Pingala, and Hemachandra, as well as the great mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhaskara, and of course Brahmagupta. Their works contain incredible mathematical discoveries, and were very inspirational to me as a young mathematician.
The classic works of Pingala, Hemachandra, and Brahmagupta have been particularly influential in my own work.
Q: You have said that you found inspiration to do maths through tabla playing and Sanskrit. How?
A: My greatest influences while growing up were my grandfather, a renowned scholar of Sanskrit and ancient Indian history, and my mother, a mathematician with strong interests also in music and linguistics. As a result, I also developed deep interests in language and literature, particularly Sanskrit poetry, and in classical Indian music. I learned to play a number of musical instruments, such as sitar, guitar, violin, and keyboard. But I always enjoyed rhythm and percussion the most! My favourite instrument was the tabla. I enjoyed thinking about the mathematics of rhythm in classic Hindustani and Carnatic music.
While growing up, I learned from my grandfather how much incredible mathematics was discovered in ancient times by scholars who considered themselves not mathematicians, but poets (or linguists). Linguists such as Panini, Pingala, Hemachandra, and Narayana discovered some wonderful and deep mathematical concepts while studying poetry. The stories that my grandfather told me about them were very inspirational to me.
Here is an example, originating in 500 B.C., that has been particularly fascinating to me as a drummer.
In the rhythms of Sanskrit poetry, there are two kinds of syllables - long and short. A long syllable lasts two beats, and a short syllable lasts one beat. A question that naturally arose for ancient poets was: how many rhythms can one construct with exactly (say) eight beats, consisting of long and short syllables? For instance, one can take long-long-long-long, or
The answer was discovered by the ancients, and is contained in Pingala's classical work Chandashastra, which dates back to between 500 and 200 B.C.
Here is the elegant solution. We write down a sequence of numbers as follows. We first write down the numbers 1 and 2. And then each subsequent number is obtained by adding up the two previous numbers.
So, for example, we start with 1 and 2, and then 1+2 is 3, so we have so far 1 2 3. The next number is obtained by adding up the last two numbers 2 and 3, which is 5. So we have so far 1 2 3 5. The next number written is then 3+5 which is 8. In this way, we get a sequence of numbers 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89... The n-th number written tells you the total number of rhythms, consisting of long and short syllables, having n beats. So for 8 beats, the answer is that there are 34 such rhythms in total.
This sequence of numbers is now ubiquitous in mathematics, as well as in a number of other arts and sciences! The numbers are known as the Hemachandra numbers, after the 11th century linguist who first documented and proved their method of generation -- called a "recurrence relation" in modern mathematics. The numbers are also known as the Fibonacci numbers in the West, after the famous Italian mathematician who wrote about them in the 12th century.
These numbers play an important role now in so many areas of mathematics (there is even an entire mathematical journal, the Fibonacci Quarterly, devoted to them!). They also arise in botany and biology. For example, the number of petals on a daisy tends to be one of these Hemachandra numbers, and similarly for the number of spirals on a pine cone (for mathematical reasons that are now essentially understood).
One of my favorite photographs, which I keep in my office, is of a vast field of daisies, in which every daisy has 34 petals! (Recall that 34 is the same number that appeared as the answer to our question about 8 beat rhythms, revealing a hidden connection that mathematicians now understand.)
This story inspired me when I was growing up because it is a wonderful example of a simple idea that grew into something so omnipresent, important, and deep- unraveling surprising and beautiful connections among different realms of thought. There are many examples of this phenomenon in mathematics and its sister areas; I grew up learning many examples stemming from Sanskrit poetry, and is one of those things that always makes a mathematician's eyes light up.
Q: We were pleasantly surprised to know that Ustad Zakir Hussain gave you lessons in tabla. How was he as a teacher?
A: I first started learning music from my mother, who sings and also plays the tabla. When I was maybe 3 years old, I used to hear my mother playing tabla often, and I asked her to teach me to play a little bit. She tried to teach me the basic sound "na".
She demonstrated the sound to me, and I tried to mimic her to reproduce the sound, but nothing came out. I was hooked! I always loved the beauty and the intricacy of the tabla sound and repertoire, and how it also perfectly complemented sounds on the sitar, or vocal, etc.
I learned with my mom first, and then with Pandit Prem Prakash Sharma in Jaipur whenever I visited there.
I met Zakir-ji when I was an undergraduate at Harvard. He came to perform there when I was a third year student. I had the exciting opportunity to meet him afterwards at a reception, and he invited me to visit him in California (where he lives). I have had the great pleasure and privilege of learning from him a bit off and on since then. He is not just an incredible artist, but also an amazing teacher.
More than that, he has been a wonderful and inspirational friend, and he and his whole family - in both California and Bombay - have been such a huge source of love, encouragement, and support to me for so long, and I am very grateful to them for that.
Q: You are known to use magic tricks in your class to explain points. As a professor, what would be your three suggestions to teachers in India to create interest in maths in the classroom, especially among students who fear the subject?
A: - Maths problems should be motivated not just through the sciences, but also through the arts: puzzles, toys, magic, poetry, music - these should all form a key part of the mathematics classroom.
- Students should not be taught to solve problems in a robotic way; instead, they should be guided to discover key mathematics ideas on their own. Maths should be a creative exciting process of discovery!
-Maths should be interactive and collaborative. Students should be encouraged to discover things together, and work together.
This is how mathematics research is, and so this should be reflected in the classroom!
Q. Again as a professor, what would be your advice to students who fear the subject? Any books or online resources you would recommend.
A: When people see mathematics done as described above, as a playful, creative, interactive subject, they see that it is not terrifying at all - it is beautiful! Among my favorite books as a child that taught me a lot about the fun of mathematics were those of Martin Gardner, e.g., his book "Mathematics, Magic, and Mystery".
Q: You are famous for finding a simpler way to express Gauss composition law through Bharmagupta's work and Rubik's Cube? Can you explain how you did it?
A: Gauss's law says that you can compose two quadratic forms (i.e., expressions of the shape ax^2+bxy+cy^2, where a, b, c are fixed whole numbers and x and y are the variables) to get a third such quadratic form.
I was in California in the summer of 1998, and I had a 2 x 2 x 2 mini-Rubik's cube in my room. I was visualizing putting numbers on each of the corners, and I saw these binary quadratic forms coming out, three of them. I just sat down and wrote out the relations between them, and realized that I had found a simple description of Gauss's law. It was a great day!
I can give more details if you are interested: A very classical question in mathematics is: what whole numbers can be expressed as the sum of two squares? (i.e., what whole number values are taken by the polynomial x^2 + y^2, for whole number values of x and y?) For example, 5 is such a number, because 5 = 1 + 4 = 1^2 + 2^2, but 7 is not.
One ancient theorem about such numbers is: if you take two whole numbers that are each a sum of two squares, and you multiply them, then you will always again get a number that is a sum of two squares! (Please try it!)
The reason for this is the following remarkable identity: (a^2 + b^2) (c^2 + d^2) = (ac - bd)^2 + (ad + bc)^2.
This identity gives an explicit method for taking two numbers that are each a sum of two squares, and expressing the product again as a sum of two squares.
This identity was discovered by Diophantus in the third century, and is a first case of Gauss composition: We are taking an expression of the form x^2 + y^2, and multiplying it with another expression of the form x^2 + y^2, and we are ending up with a third quadratic expression, also of the form x^2+y^2!
More generally, for any number n, if you take two whole numbers that are each a square plus n times a square, and you multiply them, you will always end up again with a number that is a square plus n times a square. This is because of a generalization of the above identity, discovered by Brahmagupta in 628.
It was not until Gauss that this phenomenon was fully understood. Gauss found all triples Q, R, S of quadratic expressions such that: if a is any value taken by Q, and b is any value taken by R, then the product ab will always be a value taken by S. In that case, we say that "the composition of Q and R is S" (in Gauss's law of composition). For example, the composition of Q = x^2 + ny^2 and R = x^2 + ny^2 is again S = x^2 + ny^2, due to Brahmagupta's identity.
Gauss showed that, in general, S is essentially uniquely determined by Q and R, so it makes sense to say that S is the composition of Q and R. (By "quadratic expression", we mean here an expression of the form ax^2 + bxy +cy^2, where a, b, c are fixed whole numbers, and x and y are the variables.)
Gauss discovered this law of composition in 1801 in his famous work Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, but it took about 20 pages of complicated calculation to describe the composition law in general.
In my Ph.D. thesis, inspired by Rubik's cubes as you mentioned, I found a very simple way to formulate Gauss composition, which took only a few lines to describe. (Please see, e.g., pages 10, 11, and 12 of this link).
This new perspective on Gauss composition also led me in my Ph.D. thesis to 13 new laws of composition, which applied to higher degree polynomials and to polynomials in more than 2 variables (Gauss composition applies to binary quadratic forms, i.e., degree 2 polynomials in two variables).
Previously, it was thought that Gauss composition is an isolated phenomenon that applies only to quadratic expressions in two variables.
My Ph.D. thesis work showed that it was in fact part of a much larger theory. That's probably more than you wanted to know! :)
Q: Do you think maths is a natural gift or can it be inculcated in students by proper guidance?
A: I think it can be a combination of both, but proper guidance/encouragement/inspiration is perhaps the more important aspect. A student's talent and interest has to be fostered and cultivated in order to truly bloom.
Tuesday, August 12, 2014
Subject: FW: ALARMING FACTS
Mr Geert Wilders is a Member of the Dutch Parliament.
> In a generation or two, the US will ask itself: "Who lost Europe ?" Here is the speech of Geert Wilders, Chairman, Party for Freedom the Netherlands , at the Four Seasons in New York , introducing an Alliance of Patriots and announcing the Facing Jihad Conference in Jerusalem ..
> Dear friends,
> Thank you very much for inviting me.
> I come to America with a mission. All is not well in the old world. There is a tremendous danger looming, and it is very difficult to be optimistic. We might be in the final stages of the Islamization of Europe. This not only is a clear and present danger to the future of Europe itself, it is a threat to America and the sheer survival of the West. The United States as the last bastion of Western civilization, facing an Islamic Europe.
> First, I will describe the situation on the ground in Europe . Then, I will say a few things about Islam. To close I will tell you about a meeting in Jerusalem .
> The Europe you know is changing.
> You have probably seen the landmarks. But in all of these cities, sometimes a few blocks away from your tourist destination, there is another world. It is the world of the parallel society created by Muslim mass-migration.
> All throughout Europe a new reality is rising: entire Muslim neighborhoods where very few indigenous people reside or are even seen. And if they are, they might regret it. This goes for the police as well. It's the world of head scarves, where women walk around in figureless tents, with baby strollers and a group of children. Their husbands, or slaveholders if you prefer, walk three steps ahead. With mosques on many street corners. The shops have signs you and I cannot read. You will be hard-pressed to find any economic activity. These are Muslim ghettos controlled by religious fanatics. These are Muslim neighborhoods, and they are mushrooming in every city across Europe . These are the building-blocks for territorial control of increasingly larger portions of Europe , street by street, neighborhood by neighborhood, city by city.
> There are now thousands of mosques throughout Europe . With larger congregations than there are in churches. And in every European city there are plans to build super-mosques that will dwarf every church in the region. Clearly, the signal is: we rule.
> Many European cities are already one-quarter Muslim: just take Amsterdam , Marseille and Malmo in Sweden . In many cities the majority of the under-18 population is Muslim. Paris is now surrounded by a ring of Muslim neighborhoods. Mohammed is the most popular name among boys in many cities.
> In some elementary schools in Amsterdam the farm can no longer be mentioned, because that would also mean mentioning the pig, and that would be an insult to Muslims.
> Many state schools in Belgium and Denmark only serve halal food to all pupils. In once-tolerant Amsterdam gays are beaten up almost exclusively by Muslims. Non-Muslim women routinely hear 'whore, whore'. Satellite dishes are not pointed to local TV stations, but to stations in the country of origin.
> In France school teachers are advised to avoid authors deemed offensive to Muslims, including Voltaire and Diderot; the same is increasingly true of Darwin The history of the Holocaust can no longer be taught because of Muslim sensitivity.
> In England sharia courts are now officially part of the British legal system. Many neighborhoods in France are no-go areas for women without head scarves. Last week a man almost died after being beaten up by Muslims in Brussels , because he was drinking during the Ramadan.
> Jews are fleeing France in record numbers, on the run for the worst wave of anti-Semitism since World War II. French is now commonly spoken on the streets of Tel Aviv and Netanya , Israel .. I could go on forever with stories like this. Stories about Islamization.
> A total of fifty-four million Muslims now live. San Diego University recently calculated that a staggering 25 percent of the population in Europe will be Muslim just 12 years from now. Bernhard Lewis has predicted a Muslim majority by the end of this century.
> Now these are just numbers. And the numbers would not be threatening if the Muslim-immigrants had a strong desire to assimilate. But there are few signs of that. The Pew Research Center reported that half of French Muslims see their loyalty to Islam as greater than their loyalty to France .. One-third of French Muslims do not object to suicide attacks. The British Centre for Social Cohesion reported that one-third of British Muslim students are in favor of a worldwide caliphate. Muslims demand what they call 'respect'. And this is how we give them respect. We have Muslim official state holidays.
> The Christian-Democratic attorney general is willing to accept sharia in the Netherlands if there is a Muslim majority. We have cabinet members with passports from Morocco and Turkey ..
> Muslim demands are supported by unlawful behavior, ranging from petty crimes and random violence, for example against ambulance workers and bus drivers, to small-scale riots. Paris has seen its uprising in the low-income suburbs, the banlieus. I call the perpetrators 'settlers'. Because that is what they are. They do not come to integrate into our societies; they come to integrate our society into their Dar-al-Islam. Therefore, they are settlers.
> Much of this street violence I mentioned is directed exclusively against non-Muslims, forcing many native people to leave their neighborhoods, their cities, their countries. Moreover, Muslims are now a swing vote not to be ignored.
> The second thing you need to know is the importance of Mohammed the prophet. His behavior is an example to all Muslims and cannot be criticized. Now, if Mohammed had been a man of peace, let us say like Ghandi and Mother Theresa wrapped in one, there would be no problem. But Mohammed was a warlord, a mass murderer, a pedophile, and had several marriages - at the same time. Islamic tradition tells us how he fought in battles, how he had his enemies murdered and even had prisoners of war executed. Mohammed himself slaughtered the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza. If it is good for Islam, it is good. If it is bad for Islam, it is bad.
> Let no one fool you about Islam being a religion. Sure, it has a god, and a here-after, and 72 virgins. But in its essence Islam is a political ideology. It is a system that lays down detailed rules for society and the life of every person. Islam wants to dictate every aspect of life. Islam means 'submission'. Islam is not compatible with freedom and democracy, because what it strives for is sharia. If you want to compare Islam to anything, compare it to communism or national-socialism, these are all totalitarian ideologies.
> Now you know why Winston Churchill called Islam 'the most retrograde force in the world', and why he compared Mein Kampf to the Quran. The public has wholeheartedly accepted the Palestinian narrative, and sees Israel as the aggressor. I have lived in this country and visited it dozens of times. I support Israel . First, because it is the Jewish homeland after two thousand years of exile up to and including Auschwitz; second because it is a democracy, and third because Israel is our first line of defense.
> This tiny country is situated on the fault line of jihad, frustrating Islam's territorial advance. Israel is facing the front lines of jihad, like Kashmir, Kosovo, the Philippines , Southern Thailand, Darfur in Sudan , Lebanon , and Aceh in Indonesia .. Israel is simply in the way. The same way West-Berlin was during the Cold War.
> The war against Israel is not a war against Israel . It is a war against the West. It is jihad. Israel is simply receiving the blows that are meant for all of us. If there would have been no Israel , Islamic imperialism would have found other venues to release its energy and its desire for conquest. Thanks to Israeli parents who send their children to the army and lay awake at night, parents in Europe and America can sleep well and dream, unaware of the dangers looming.
> Many in Europe argue in favor of abandoning Israel in order to address the grievances of our Muslim minorities. But if Israel were, God forbid, to go down, it would not bring any solace to the West It would not mean our Muslim minorities would all of a sudden change their behavior, and accept our values. On the contrary, the end of Israel would give enormous encouragement to the forces of Islam. They would, and rightly so, see the demise of Israel as proof that the West is weak, and doomed. The end of Israel would not mean the end of our problems with Islam, but only the beginning. It would mean the start of the final battle for world domination. If they can get Israel , they can get everything. So-called journalists volunteer to label any and all critics of Islamization as a 'right-wing extremists' or 'racists'. In my country, the Netherlands , 60 percent of the population now sees the mass immigration of Muslims as the number one policy mistake since World War II. And another 60 percent sees Islam as the biggest threat. Yet there is a greater danger than terrorist attacks, the scenario of America as the last man standing. The lights may go out in Europe faster than you can imagine. An Islamic Europe means a Europe without freedom and democracy, an economic wasteland, an intellectual nightmare, and a loss of military might for America - as its allies will turn into enemies, enemies with atomic bombs. With an Islamic Europe, it would be up to America alone to preserve the heritage of Rome , Athens and Jerusalem ....
P.P. Sarasanghachalak Mohanji's Speech at Golden Jubilee celebration of Rashtradeep
Yato dharma Statojaya
Cuttack,10th August- "The magnanimity of the deed is not important, the intention (Bhavna) behind the deed is important. Therefore the circulation figure of the Rashtradeep is not very much important for us. As the aim and objective of the weekly is to serve the people, connect them with their root and Culture,( i.e. Hindutwa.) and to help them to eradiacate the suffering, pain through information and views, it will go on it's path with the very aim and objective in the years to come. " P.P. Sarasanghachalak of RSS Mananiya MohanRao Bhagbatji said this while addressing the valedictory of Golden Jubilee celebration of Odia Weekly Rashtradeep. The grand function was held today evening at Saheed Bhavan, Cuttack.
Mohanji started his speech with narrating the story of milk woman Hirabai who jumped from the Raygad Fort in the darkness of the night only to feed her child. He said deed may be big or small, but the intention behind doing this is much important.
Further he referred his previous speaker, the chief guest of the occasion educationist Dr. Achuta Samanta, Ex vice-chancellor of KIIT University, Who said "since independence, 3 democratic milestones of Bharat had shaken the whole world. These are 1947, 1977 and 2014." Referring this Mohanji said, "all these happened due to people wanted for these. It is being said that, all this happened due to some party, other organization or due to some individual. But they were there, well much before. But the change (parivartan) did not occur. Only when people wanted the change, then only it could happen."
Further he said, if we goes on doing the right things continuously with a noble aim, it will definitely bring change . He added, yes, it is difficult for good to counter evil, but ultimately the good prevails, Truth and Dharma wins.
Quoting Swami Vivekananda he said, "Swamijee said, there are numerous individuals who have worked for the society much vigorously than even Rama, Krishna and Jesus. But they didn't want any recognition and served the society silently. Likewise we don't work because of any recognition, silent work is our style."
Mohanji said, "all live here in Hindusthan is Hindu. Our worshiping style may be different, even some may not worship at all, we may talk in different languages, may stay at various part of the land, we may eat different food, but we are One, one Nation We are Hindu. Those who stays in England are English, all those are in Germany areGerman, all those who are in USA are Americans, Likewise All here in HINDUSTHAN are HINDUs, so simple to understand. Hinduism is our Nationality. It's a way of life. Unnecessarily some are confusing people." Mohanji said even today's research revealed since 40,000 years or even much before that on the Indo-Iranian plate there living one species. DNA mapping confirms this.
He said, "Whole world is covered with Darkness of Adharma, Asat (falsehood), and Agyana (absence of proper knowledge). Adharma is attacking the Dharma. It happens. For this we must not be disheartened. The only way for survival of Bharat is Dharma. As long as we act according to Dharma, there is no power in the universe who can destroy Bharat. And if we forget to act according to our Dharma, then nothing in this universe can save us. As the existence of the whole world is dependant upon the existence of Bharat, the Almighty wants Bharat to exist, Grow and Lighten the whole world, Save the whole World." "
He further added Prior to 3000 years or since the time immemorial, Bharat was the guide to the whole world in all fields. We helped other to grow, We never hurt any country. Therefore others love us, they know our history, but we have forgotten. They are watching us with a great hope. But we are sleeping. We have forgotten our own glorious history, forgotten our 'SWADHARMA'. We must have proper knowledge about SWA and DHARMA. Hinduism is SWA of Hindu. When somebody tries to rise the SWA of Hindu, some are crying communal, communal. Hinduism or Hindutwa is our Nationality. It is neither any worshiping style, nor any creed, place nor sect. It is an Identity and Nationality. With our Body-mind-wit (intellect), we must try to move forward towards Atman. This is our Dharma, this is Hindutwa."
Mohanji concluded, "Since 50 years Rashtradeep has struggled much, but the journey never stopped and will never do so. As the situation of our motherland is not changed satisfactorily. People are still suffering. They are not in good state of health, mind, and soul. So Rashtradeep will glow, burn itself to enlighten the society. We will change the Dil (heart), Dasha (situation) but will never change the Disha( Direction).
Thursday, August 7, 2014
> रक्षा बंधन के पर्व का महत्व भारतीय जनमानस में प्राचीन काल से गहरा बना
> हुआ है. यह बात सच है कि पुरातन भारतीय परंपरा के अनुसार समाज का शिक्षक
> वर्ग होता था, वह रक्षा सूत्र के सहारे इस देश की ज्ञान परंपरा की रक्षा
> का संकल्प शेष समाज से कराता था. सांस्कृतिक और धार्मिक पुरोहित वर्ग भी
> रक्षा सूत्र के माध्यम से समाज से रक्षा का संकल्प कराता था. हम यही पाते
> हैं कि किसी भी अनुष्ठान के बाद रक्षा सूत्र के माध्यम से उपस्थित सभी
> जनों को रक्षा का संकल्प कराया जाता है. राजव्यवस्था के अन्दर राजपुरोहित
> राजा को रक्षा सूत्र बाँध कर धर्म और सत्य की रक्षा के साथ साथ संपूर्ण
> प्रजा की रक्षा का संकल्प कराता था. कुल मिलाकर भाव यही है कि शक्ति
> सम्पन्न वर्ग अपनी शक्ति सामर्थ्य को ध्यान में रखकर समाज के श्रेष्ठ
> मूल्यों का एवं समाज की रक्षा का संकल्प लेता है. संघ के संस्थापक परम
> पूज्य डॉक्टर साहब हिन्दू समाज में सामरस्य स्थापित करना चाहते थे तो
> स्वाभाविकरूप से उनको इस पर्व का महत्व भी स्मरण में आया और समस्त हिन्दू
> समाज मिलकर समस्त हिन्दू समाज की रक्षा का संकल्प ले, इस सुन्दर स्वरूप
> के साथ यह कार्यक्रम (उत्सव) संघ में स्थापित हो गया.
> Raksha Bandhanवैसे तो हिन्दू समाज के परिवारों में बहिनों द्वारा भाइयों
> को रक्षा सूत्र बांधना, यह इस पर्व का स्थायी स्वरूप था. संघ के उत्सवों
> के कारण इसका अर्थ विस्तार हुआ. सीमित अर्थों में न होकर व्यापक अर्थों
> में समाज का प्रत्येक वर्ग, प्रत्येक वर्ग की रक्षा का संकल्प लेने लगा.
> समाज का एक भी अंग अपने आपको अलग-थलग या असुरक्षित अनुभव न करने पाये –
> यह भाव जाग्रत करना संघ का उद्देश्य है.
> महाविकट लंबे पराधीनता काल के दौरान समाज का प्रत्येक वर्ग ही संकट में
> था. सभी को अपने अस्तित्व की सुरक्षा एवं प्राण रक्षा की चिंता थी. इस
> कारण समज के छोटे-छोटे वर्गों ने अपने चारों ओर बड़ी दीवारें बना लीं.
> समाज का प्रत्येक वर्ग अपने को अलग रखने में ही सुरक्षा का अनुभव कर रहा
> था. इसका लाभ तो हुआ, किंतु भिन्न-भिन्न वर्गों में दूरियां बढ़तीं गईं.
> हिन्दू समाज में ही किन्हीं भी कारणों से आया दूरी का भाव बढ़ता चला गया.
> कहीं-कहीं लोग एक दूसरे को स्पर्श करने से भी भयभीत थे. कुछ लोग, कुछ
> लोगों की परछाईं से भी डरने लगे. जातियों के भेद गहरे हो गये. भाषा और
> प्रांत की विविधताओं में कहीं-कहीं सामञ्जस्य के स्थान पर विद्वेष का रूप
> प्रकट होने लगा. यह विखण्डन का काल था. ऐसा लगता था कि हिन्दू समाज
> अनगिनत टुकड़ों में बंट जायेगा. सामञ्जस्य एवं समरसता के सूत्र और कम
> होते गये. विदेशी शक्तियों ने बजाय इसके कि इसको कम किया जाये, आग में घी
> डालने का काम किया. विरोधों का सहारा लेकर खाई को चौड़ा किया. विविधता
> में विद्वेष पैदा करने में वे लोग सिद्धहस्त थे.
> राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ ने हिन्दू समाज की इस दुर्दशा का दृश्य देखा तो
> न केवल इसकी पीड़ा का अनुभव किया वरन् इसके स्थायी निवारण का संकल्प
> लिया. रक्षा बंधन के पर्व को सनातन काल से सामरस्य का पर्व माना गया है.
> यह आपसी विश्वास का पर्व है. इस पर्व पर जो-जो सक्षम थे, वे अन्य को
> विश्वास दिलाते थे कि वे निर्भय रहें. किसी भी संकट में सक्षम उनके साथ
> खड़े रहेंगे. संघ ने इसी विश्वास को हजारों स्वयंसेवकों के माध्यम से
> समाज में पुनर्स्थापित करने का श्रेयस्कर कार्य किया. रक्षा बंधन के पर्व
> पर स्वयंसेवक परम पवित्र भगवा ध्वज को रक्षा सूत्र बांधकर उस संकल्प का
> स्मरण करते हैं, जिसमें कहा गया है कि धर्मो रक्षति रक्षित: अर्थात् हम
> सब मिलकर धर्म की रक्षा करें. समाज में मूल्यों का रक्षण करें. अपनी
> श्रेष्ठ परंपराओं का रक्षण करें. यही धर्म का व्यावहारिक पक्ष है. तभी तो
> धर्म सम्पूर्ण समाज की रक्षा करने में सक्षम हो सकेगा. धर्म बाहरी तत्व
> नहीं है. हम सबमें छिपी या मुखर उदात्त भावनाओं का नाम है. हमारा जो
> व्यवहार लोकमंगलकारी है, वही धर्म है. ध्वज को रक्षा सूत्र बांधने का
> हेतु भी यही है कि समाज के लिये हितकर उदात्त परंपरा का रक्षण करेंगे.
> स्वयंसेवक भी एकदूसरे को स्नेह-सूत्र बांधते हैं. जाति, धर्म, भाषा,
> धनसंपत्ति, शिक्षा या सामाजिक ऊंचनीच का भेद अर्थहीन है. रक्षाबंधन का
> सूत्र इन सारी विविधताओं और भेदों के ऊपर एक अभेद की सृष्टि करता है. इन
> विविधताओं के बावजूद एक सामरस्य का स्थापन करता है. इस नन्हें से सूत्र
> से क्षणभर में स्वयंसेवक परस्पर आत्मीय भाव से बंध जाते हैं. परम्परा का
> भेद और कुरीतियों का कलुष कट जाता है. प्रेम और एक दूसरे के प्रति समर्पण
> का भाव गहराई तक सृजित होता है.
> कार्यक्रम के उपरांत स्वयंसेवक अपने समाज की उन बस्तियों में चले जाते
> हैं जो सदियों से वंचित एवं उपेक्षित हैं. वंचितों एवं उपेक्षितों के बीच
> बैठकर उनको भी रक्षा सूत्र बांधते और बंधवाते हुए हम उस संकल्प को
> दोहराते हैं जिसमें भगवान श्रीकृष्ण कहते हैं- समानम् सर्व भूतेषु. यह
> अभूतपूर्व कार्यक्रम है जब लाखों स्वयंसेवक इस देश की हजारों बस्तियों
> में निवास करने वाले लाखों वंचित परिवारों में बैठकर रक्षा बंधन के भाव
> को प्रकट करते हैं. विगत वर्षों के ऐसे कार्यक्रमों के कारण हिंदू समाज
> के अंदर एक्य एवं सामरस्य भाव-संचार का गुणात्मक परिवर्तन दिखाई दे रहा
> है. इसके पीछे संघ के इस कार्यक्रम की महती भूमिका है. भाव यही है कि
> सम्पूर्ण समाज, सम्पूर्ण समाज की रक्षा का व्रत ले. लोग श्रेष्ठ जीवन
> मूल्यों की रक्षा का व्रत लें. सशक्त, समरस एवं संस्कार संपन्न समाज ही
> किसी देश की शक्ति का आधार हो सकता है. इसी प्रयत्न में संघ लगा है.
> रक्षा बंधन का यह पर्व इस महाअभियान के चरणरूप में है.
> (लेखक डा. कृष्ण गोपाल राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ के सह-सरकार्यवाह हैं)
Friday, August 1, 2014
The Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) has mutated into the Islamic State after capturing parts of Syria and Iraq. The historic Islamic term "Sham" is the name given by al-Qaeda to Syria, which the Syrians don't like because it means "left hand" and "shame", and instead use the pagan term, Suriya, based on the correct pronunciation of the Greek letter "y" in Syria.
The Islamic State is a Sunni terrorist organisation, linked to al-Qaeda in the past but now on its own. First formed by Abu Musaab al Zarqawi in 2003, it is led today by Abu Bakr al Baghdadi, also known as Caliph Ibrahim. Baghdadi is supposed to have gone to Afghanistan in the late 1990s with Zarqawi, a Jordanian street fighter who died in Baghdad in June 2006 as an international terrorist with $25 million on his head.
Zarqawi went for jihad in Afghanistan in the 1980s. He established a training camp there to prepare guerrillas against Jordan. He was jailed for seven years in Amman on his return but was soon back in Afghanistan training jihadists in Herat, and was also in Tora Bora with Osama bin Laden in 2001. He got injured in Kandahar during the American invasion and was evacuated through Iran by Afghan warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, who had good contacts in Tehran. He moved to Iraq after that, well in time to see the Americans invade the country, and joined the Kurd-led jihadi militia, Ansar al-Islam, there. Ansar al-Islam, recently revived, was founded as a terrorist group by one Mullah Krekar, who went to the International Islamic University (IIU) of Islamabad as a lecturer in the 1980s and later joined the jihad in Peshawar.
At the age of 23, Zarqawi went to Pakistan, only to find that the Soviet Union had already pulled out of Afghanistan. He began to frequent the inner circles of al-Qaeda, which had just been founded. He lived in Hayatabad, Peshawar, and met such jihadi leaders as the Palestinian intellectual Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, Pashtun warlord Hekmatyar and Tajik clerical leader Burhanuddin Rabbani. He also met for the first time another personality who had arrived there from Jordan, Abu Muhammad al-Maqdisi.
Maqdisi was violent, attacking Western modernism, particularly its liberal democracy. Eighteen of his articles were found in the personal effects of Mohamed Atta, the leader of the Hamburg Cell, who attacked the World Trade Centre on September 11, 2001. He was close to Azzam, who taught at the IIU. The two were seen eating at restaurants in Islamabad. Maqdisi's second close friend in Pakistan was Khalid Sheikh Muhammad, the man who planned the 9/11 strikes.
Zarqawi remained in Peshawar and Afghanistan till 1993. While working at a magazine run by Khalid Sheikh Muhammad's brother in Peshawar — which first announced the founding of al-Qaeda under Azzam — he got his three sisters married off to the jihadists. While at the magazine, Zarqawi made his way to the Sada camp of the Wahhabi Afghan warlord Abdul Rasul Sayyaf in Afghanistan, to be in the company of Ramzi Yousef, al-Qaeda's first bomber who is now in an American prison, and Khalid Sheikh Muhammad.
In Hayatabad, Zarqawi was welcomed by the Pakistani Wafa Humanitarian Organisation, later banned by the UN, which provided funds for al-Qaeda and false passports for jihadists. Finally, many of the important al-Qaeda terrorists, including Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani, the man who had planned the attack on US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998, were arrested from Hayatabad in 2004.
One of Zarqawi's sisters was already living in Peshawar, married to a religious scholar. Zarqawi's mother came up to Peshawar to see her son in 1999 and stayed there for a month. Soon his wife and children too joined him. That year, the international community became impatient with Pakistan. From 1994 to 1999, almost 1,00,000 Pakistanis had been trained in the Afghan camps run by al-Qaeda, and the clerics of Pakistan had begun to sense monetary and military advantage in aligning themselves with Osama bin Laden.
On Jordan's request, Zarqawi was arrested and sent to jail. He was released after a week although he was listed as a terrorist in Jordan. With an exit permit in his hand, Zarqawi left for Karachi first, then went to Kabul to be one of the trainers of terrorists. In Kabul, he was given a house before being sent to Herat as a trainer. He called his family over from Hayatabad, but not before he had married a young girl, aged about 13, in Kabul after falling in love with her. He was to marry yet another girl of 16 in Iraq.
By 2000, Zarqawi had succeeded in becoming an important mid-level leader in al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda papers found in Jalalabad after 2001 refer to him. Later letters sent by al-Qaeda to Abu Qatada, the radical cleric in the United Kingdom, speak well of Zarqawi as a leader in charge of the camps in Herat. Then Zarqawi returned to the battlefield in Kandahar, where he was wounded, and was treated in Karachi — by two Pakistani al-Qaeda doctors who later fled to North Waziristan. After this he decided to fight the Americans in Iraq and made his way to Kurdistan in northern Iraq through the tribal areas of Pakistan.
Ironically, Iran helped him pass through its territory on the request of Hekmatyar, not knowing that he would give birth to the most effective Shia-killing machine in the annals of sectarian history. Iran's favours also included safe haven for Osama bin Laden's son, Saad, through the intercession of the same Hekmatyar.
Zarqawi was in Iraq in 2001, two years before the Americans invaded it after then US secretary of state Colin Powell's public statement about Saddam Hussein's terrorist connections. Powell also named Zarqawi, wrongly, as a Palestinian terrorist. Zarqawi struck back in April 2004, when he captured and personally beheaded the American hostage, Nicholas Berg.
Leaning on the sectarian writings of the great 18th century Indian scholar, Shah Abdul Aziz, he killed Shias in Nasiriyah, Baghdad and Karbala, which culminated in his murder of 50 Iraqi National Guards at a training camp in Kirkuk. His most decisive act, which unleashed the sectarian war in Iraq, was the 2006 destruction of the tomb of Imam Askari in Samarra.
Al-Qaeda tried to ditch Zarqawi but couldn't because of the support and funding he was receiving from Muslims in UK. He was killed in an American bombing raid in Baghdad in 2006. Today, ISIS is once again at odds with al-Qaeda. But, once again, all auguries point to a reconciliation which may see Ayman al-Zawahiri taking a backseat to al-Baghdadi.
As reported in the Daily Jang (June 10, 2006), Jamaat-ud-Dawa (the old Lashkar-e-Toiba) carried out a funeral prayer in absentia for Zarqawi in Lahore and condemned the foreign office for saying that the death of the Shia-killer in Iraq was an achievement in the war against terrorism. The congregation that blessed Zarqawi kept weeping loudly for the great shaheed. In the Pakistan National Assembly, the clerical alliance, Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, demanded fateha prayers for Zarqawi but was denied by the speaker.
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